For those who have not read our previous monthly reports, the Sid Valley Biodiversity Group is carrying out a year-long survey of the valley’s herbaceous plants recording what is in flower each month.

This is a citizen scientist project with volunteers from the group noting which flowers they see when out walking around the town and in the countryside. This is not totally random, apart from casual walks, a number of sites around the valley have been selected for regular survey to represent a range of habitats including the beach, hedgerows, heath, and open grassland, the sites are spread to cover the valley from north to south and east to west.

As the name suggests, the group is interested in recording and promoting the biodiversity of the valley and there is plenty of plant biodiversity. This month, the volunteers have recorded 192 species in flower, 83 of them for the first time this year. In all, they have recorded 275 species of herbaceous flowering plants this year. See Appendix 1 for this month’s newcomers and Appendix 2 for the full list and the months in which the individual species have been recorded.

The herbaceous flowering plants are only a part of the plant biodiversity. There are some species, the grasses, rushes, and sedges, that have escaped recording because the volunteers do not yet have the skill to distinguish these tricky groups, training is earmarked for next year. The valley is also home to non-flowering plants such as mosses and ferns, and woody tree and shrub species. Sidmouth Arboretum has 149 tree and shrub species in its database. The total number of plant species is believed to be more than six hundred.

Some of the common plants have been with us all year, Dandelions and Daisies on the grass verges, Herb Robert and Red Campion in the hedgerows, and Ivy Leaved Toadflax lodged in the cracks of garden walls. This makes them vital contributors to the valley’s total biodiversity because there will be insects that rely on them as an ongoing food source.

Bee orchid
Bee orchid

There tends to be great excitement about pretty species such as wild Roses and others such as Bee Orchids (see right) that are unusual or rare. While these species are important, rather like the celebrity culture that occupies so much media space, the reality is that these celebrity species are no more important than the common or garden dandelion and daisy. From a biodiversity point of view, the celebrities contribute less to the whole. Orchids are fascinating, partly because they are highly evolved to synchronise their lives with particular insects. In many cases, they are pollinated by just one species of insect and so they support only that species which will have its breeding cycle fitted to the short flowering period of the orchids. Dandelions and daisies are open to most pollen and nectar feeders, and they flower across much of the year, their presence is the basis for a much more extensive food chain.

Goat’s beard
Goat’s beard

Another advantage for biodiversity that the Dandelions and Daisies have is that they have what are called composite flowers. Each yellow ray of a dandelion and each little yellow bump on the disc of a daisy is a floret, a complete flower with its own nectar to attract an insect and hence transfer the pollen. Mexican Fleabane is an exotic (non-native) composite species that thrives around Sidmouth. I was fascinated recently to stand for five minutes watching a Meadow Brown butterfly sat on a Mexican Fleabane flower head, the butterfly’s proboscis working round from floret to floret sucking up the nectar.

The composite flower family is very extensive, and the Dandelion and Daisy flowers have been joined by at least eleven cousins this month. There is Goat’s Beard which looks like a tall Dandelion but, as the common name Go-to-Bed-at-Noon suggests, its flower heads only open in the morning. When pollinated, the seed heads (see left) look like Dandelions on steroids with each achene, a fruit with a single seed inside, having a large parachute pappus.

Pineapple mayweed
Pineapple mayweed

Much less showy is Pineapple Weed (see right). Usually treated as a weed, this cousin of Chamomile is a rich nectar source for small solitary bees and beetles which it attracts

Chicory
Chicory

with its rich smell of pineapple rather than a show of floral brilliance. The flower heads can be added to salads, and it is used as a herbal remedy for upset stomachs, I cannot say whether or not it works.

If you can imagine a Dandelion flower head in Wedgwood blue then you have Chicory which just made it onto the June list, but it is in full bloom through July. It is one of the species sown in Sid Meadow in The Byes and, as a perennial, it is now established firmly. Chicory leaves are eaten in salads, cultivated varieties include Endive and Radicchio. When dried, roasted, and ground, the root is a coffee substitute, but not to my taste.

Another branch of the composite flower family that comes into full flower in June are the Thistles with four species being recorded in June. Seen by many as a scourge to be eradicated, Thistles are very important if you want the joy of butterflies, especially Painted Ladies. Thistles produce more nectar per flower head than almost all other summer flowers. Another plus is that the fluffy seed heads are a particular favourite of Goldfinches. Of course, if you sit on one, Thistles can be painful.

Marsh thistle
Marsh thistle

Creeping Thistle is one of the June four. It can be an invasive weed and needs to be controlled in parks and gardens. The Creeping Thistle spreads by underground rhizomes, the three other June species are more well behaved. As the name suggests, Marsh Thistle (see right) grows in damp ground, and it sends up a single flowering stem to an impressive 2m (6ft+). Spear Thistles are not as tall, but the spines are very impressive. Melancholy Thistle is a northern species and probably a garden escape in the Sid valley. It gets its name because the developing flower heads hang down as if the plant is sad and then perk up. Medieval herbalists thought this was a sign that it would cure melancholy. Culpepper considered that a decoction of this Thistle in wine ‘being drank expels superfluous melancholy out of the body and makes a man as merry as a cricket’. There is no evidence it will work other than the joy gained by seeing the beautiful flowers feeding lots of insects.

Grass vetchling
Grass vetchling

Orchids are not the only plants with flowers that have evolved complex mechanisms to promote pollination by flying insects. The Clover and Vetch family continues to have several species in flower, and they have been joined by two more, Meadow and Grass Vetchling (see left). The latter has elegant single flowers held at the end of long, springy stalks so that only small solitary wasps can pollinate them. Two petals of the flower protrude as a keel that is a landing stage for visiting insects. As the insect lands, the keel dips down to open the flower and admit the insect where it will either pick up or deliver pollen depending on the maturity of the flower.

Woundwort
Woundwort

The flowers of the Mint and Deadnettle family also have a landing stage for visiting insects (see left) that trips a pollinating mechanism in the hood, although the flower is more open than Vetch flowers. The family used to be called Labiates which means Lipped. Two family members, Hedge and Marsh Woundwort have joined the list this month. The two species are very similar, the leaves of Hedge Woundwort have petioles or stalks while Marsh Woundwort has sessile leaves, they have no petiole. It is no surprise that Hedge Woundwort can be found in the valley’s hedgerows, but Marsh Woundwort has taken up residence on the beach around the outfall of Bickwell Brook by the Belmont Hotel. It grows in the boggy meadows up on Bulverton Hill and the seeds have probably been carried down in the stream.

Marsh Woundwort is not the only plant on the beach. A shingle beach is a challenging environment for any plant, the instability of the shifting pebbles, salt spray, lack of fresh water and strong winds being the main challenges. There are several plants that have adapted and colonised this niche environment, but many are endangered by environmental changes. The plants have deep roots to reach fresh groundwater deep below the shingle, leaves that are reduced or covered in waxy scales to cut down water lost through transpiration, and they tend to keep their heads down to avoid the wind. A group of local botanists created a beach garden several years ago to provide a home for some of these endangered species. Some did not make it, but there are two areas where several are thriving, by the Bickwell Brook outfall and alongside the Millennium Walkway.

Crambe maritima
Sea kale, Crambe maritima

The two areas are dominated by stands of Sea Beet with its sturdy, deep green leaves and spikes of sticky flowers. Also, there are clumps of Sea Kale, (see left) the wild ancestor of many cabbage types. It has large leaves with their waxy coat making them silvery grey. The large spikes of white flowers give way to round seed pods that look like strings of pearls.

There is a carpet of the delightful Sea Campion (see right) on the southern side of the Millennium Walkway area, but the flowers have nearly all gone to seed as June closes. It is a cousin to the familiar Red Campion present in so many of our hedgerows and the Bladder Campion that can be found on Alma Field, but it is prostrate, spreading out across the shingle.

Sea campion
Sea campion
Vipers bugloss
Vipers bugloss

The Sea Campion is ringed by clumps of the intense blue Viper’s Bugloss , a great favourite with Buff-tailed and Red-tailed Bumblebees. It is happy growing on beaches and sand dunes, but also occurs in chalk grassland. The unusual name is a combination of the spotted stem supposedly looking like a Viper and Bu-gloss is Greek for Ox tongue which relates to the bristly leaves.

Yellow horned poppy
Yellow horned poppy
Tree mallow
Tree mallow

Below the railings at the western end of the Esplanade you will find the impressive flowers of the Yellow Horned Poppy. On the walkway up from Jacob’s Ladder beach the tiny Rock Sea-Spurrey can be found. One seaside plant that does not to keep its head down is the Tree Mallow. This tough character is a perennial, and the tough stem bears the scars of previous years’ leaves.

Rock sea-spurrey
Rock sea-spurrey

If you visit the July project on iNaturalist you can see all of the species that we have recorded and there is a map that will show you where the plants were seen.

https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/june-sidmouth-hedgerow-herbaceous

Month on month we get a fuller picture of the natural wealth of our valley and July has made an equally impressive start with many new flowers being found in the first week, a full report will be available in early August.

Ed Dolphin

Appendix 1, species recorded for the first time in June 2021

Bedstraw, Heath

Iris, Stinking

Sea-spurrey, Rock

Bedstraw, Hedge

Iris, Yellow

Sowthistle, Perennial

Bindweed, Field

Knapweed, Common

Spearwort, Greater

Bindweed, Hedge

Knotgrass, Common

Spurge, Upright

Bugloss, Viper’s

Lady’s Mantle

St John’s Wort, Perforate

Campion, Bladder

Loosestrife, Dotted

Stonecrop, Biting

Carrot, Wild

Loosestrife, Purple

Stonecrop, White

Catchfly, Nottingham

Madder, Wild

Swinecress, Lesser

Chamomile, Yellow

Mallow, Musk

Tare, Smooth

Chicory

Mayweed, Scentless

Thistle, Creeping

Cinquefoil, Creeping

Meadowgrass, Smooth

Thistle, Marsh

Clover, Sulphur

Meadowsweet

Thistle, Melancholy

Corncockle

Monkey Flower

Thistle, Spear

Crane’s-bill, Meadow

Moor Grass, Purple

Toadflax, Purple

Creeping Jenny

Nightshade, Alpine Enchanter’s

Vetch, Common Kidney

Cress, Land

Orache, Common

Vetchling, Grass

Deptford Pink

Orchid, Bee

Vetchling, Meadow

Dock, Broad-leaved

Parsnip, Wild

Wall-Rocket, Annual

Dock, Wood

Pineapple Weed

Watercress

Elecampane

Poppy, Common

Water-dropwort, Corky-fruited

Figwort, Common

Poppy, Yellow Horned

Willowherb, Broad-leaved

Forget-me-not, Water

Ragged Robin

Willowherb, Greater

Fox and Cubs

Ragwort, Silver

Willowherb, Hoary

Goat’s Beard

Redshank

Wintercress, Common

Goldenrod, Canadian

Restharrow, Common

Woundwort, Hedge

Gromwell, Purple

Rose, Dog

Woundwort, Marsh

Heath, Cross-leaved

Sage, Wood

Yellow Rattle

Honeysuckle

Samphire, Rock

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 2, Species recorded January to June 2021

 

Common name

Scientific name

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Alexanders

Smyrnium olusatrum

1

1

1

1

1

0

Alkanet

Pentaglottis sempervirens

0

0

1

1

1

1

Anemone, Wood

Anemone nemerosa

0

0

1

1

0

0

Avens, Wood

Geum urbanum

0

0

1

1

1

1

Barley, Wall

Hordeum murinum

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bedstraw, Heath

Galium saxatile

0

0

0

0

0

1

Bedstraw, Hedge

Galium album

0

0

0

0

0

1

Bellflower, Trailing

Campanula poscharskyana

1

0

1

1

1

1

Bilberry

Vaccinium myrtillus

0

0

0

0

1

0

Bindweed, Field

Convolvulus arvensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Bindweed, Hedge

Calystegia sepium

0

0

0

0

0

1

Bittercress, Hairy

Cardamine hirsuta

0

1

1

1

1

0

Bittercress, Wavy

Cardamine flexuosa

0

0

1

1

1

0

Bittersweet

Solanum dulcamara

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bluebell

Hyacinthoides non-scripta

0

0

1

1

1

1

Bluebell, Hybrid

Hyacinthoides x hispanica

0

0

1

1

1

1

Bogbean

Menyanthes trifoliata

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bramble

Rubus fruticosa

1

0

0

0

1

1

Brooklime

Veronica beccabunga

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bryony, Black

Dioscorea communis

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bugle

Ajuga reptans

0

0

0

1

1

1

Bugloss, Viper’s

Echium vulgare

0

0

0

0

0

1

Butchers Broom

Ruscus aculeatus

0

1

1

1

0

0

Buttercup, Bulbous

Ranunculus bulbosus

0

0

0

1

0

0

Buttercup, Creeping

Ranunculus repens

0

0

0

1

1

1

Buttercup, Meadow

Ranunculus acris

0

0

0

1

1

1

Buttercup, Small Flowered

Ranunculus parvi

0

0

0

0

1

0

Campion, Bladder

Silene vulgaris

0

0

0

0

0

1

Campion, Red

Silene dioica

1

1

1

1

1

1

Campion, Sea

Silene uniflora

0

0

0

1

1

1

Carrot, Wild

Daucus carota

0

0

0

0

0

1

Carrot, Wild Sea

Daucus carota ssp.gummifer

0

0

0

0

1

1

Catchfly, Nottingham

Silene nutans

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cat’s Ear, Common

Hypochaeris radicata

0

0

0

0

1

1

Celandine, Lesser

Ficaria verna

1

1

1

1

1

0

Chamomile, Yellow

Anthemis tinctoria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Chamomile, Yellow

Cota tinctoria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Charlock

Sinapis arvensis

0

0

1

1

0

0

Chickweed

Stellaria media

0

0

1

1

1

1

Chickweed, Greater

Stellaria neglecta

0

0

0

1

0

0

Chicory

Cichorum intybus

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cinquefoil, Creeping

Potentilla reptans

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cleavers

Gallium aparine

0

0

1

1

1

1

Clover, Red

Trifolium pratense

0

0

1

1

1

1

Clover, Sulphur

Trifolium ochroleucon

0

0

0

0

0

1

Clover, White

Trifolium repens

0

0

0

0

1

1

Cock’s foot

Dactylis glomerata

0

0

0

0

1

1

Colt’s-Foot

Tussilago farfara

0

0

0

1

0

0

Comfrey, Bulbous

Symphytum bulbosum

0

0

1

1

0

0

Comfrey, Common

Symphetum sp.

0

1

1

1

1

1

Comfrey, Russian

Symphytum x uplandicum

0

0

0

1

0

0

Corncockle

Agrostemma githago

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cornsalad, Keeled-fruited

Valerianella carinata

0

0

1

1

1

1

Corydalis, Yellow

Pseudofumaria lutea

0

0

0

0

1

1

Cowslip

Primula veris

0

0

0

1

1

0

Crane’s bill, Dove’s Foot

Geranium molle

0

0

0

0

1

1

Crane’s-bill, Cut Leaved

Geranium dissectum

0

0

0

1

1

1

Crane’s-bill, Druce’s

Geranium x oxonianum

0

0

0

1

0

1

Crane’s-bill, Dusky

Geranium phaeum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Crane’s-bill, Meadow

Geranium pratense

0

0

0

0

0

1

Crane’s-bill, Shining

Geranium lucidum

0

0

0

1

1

1

Creeping Jenny

Lysimachia nummularia

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cress, Land

Barbarea verna

0

0

0

0

0

1

Crosswort

Cruciata laevipes

0

0

0

0

1

0

Cuckoo Flower

Cardamine pratensis

0

0

0

1

1

0

Cuckoo Pint

Arum maculatum

0

0

1

1

1

0

Daffodil, Wild?

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

0

0

1

1

0

0

Daisy, Common

Bellis perennis

1

1

1

1

1

1

Daisy, Ox Eye

Leucanthemum vulgare

1

0

0

0

1

1

Dame’s Violet

Hesperis matronalis

0

0

0

0

1

0

Dandelion

Taraxacum sp.

1

1

1

1

1

1

Deadnettle, Red

Lamium purpureum

1

1

1

1

0

1

Deadnettle, White

Lamium album

0

1

1

1

1

1

Deptford Pink

Dianthus armeria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Dock, Broad-leaved

Rumex obtusifolius

0

0

0

0

0

1

Dog’s Mercury

Mercurialis perennis

1

1

1

1

1

0

Dropwort

Oenanthe sp.

1

0

0

0

0

0

Elecampane

Inula helenium

0

0

0

0

0

1

Fescue, Giant

Lolium giganteum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Fescue, Red

Festuca rubra

0

0

0

1

0

1

Figwort, Common

Scrphularia nodosa

0

0

0

0

0

1

Fleabane, Mexican

Erigeron karvinskianus

1

1

1

1

1

1

Forget-me-not, Changing

Myosotis discolor

0

0

0

0

1

0

Forget-me-not, Early

Myosotis ramosisimma

0

0

0

0

1

0

Forgetmenot, Field

Myosotis arvensis

0

0

1

1

1

1

Forget-me-not, Water

Myosotis scorpioides

0

0

0

0

0

1

Forgetmenot, Wood

Myosotis sylvatica

0

1

1

1

1

1

Fox and Cubs

Pilosella aurantiaca

0

0

0

0

0

1

Foxglove

Digitalis purpurea

0

0

0

0

1

1

Foxtail, Meadow

Alopecurus pratensis

0

0

0

1

1

1

Fringe Cups

Tellima grandiflora

0

0

0

0

1

1

Fritillary, Snake’s Head

Fritillaria maleagris

0

0

0

1

0

0

Fumitory, Common-Ramping

Fumaria muralis

0

0

0

1

1

1

Garlic Mustard

Alliaria petiolata

0

0

0

1

1

1

Garlic, Three Cornered

Allium triquetrum

1

1

1

1

1

1

Garlic, Wild

Allium ursinum

0

0

1

1

1

0

Goat’s Beard

Tragopogon pratensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Goldenrod, Canadian

Solidago canadensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Golden-Saxifrage, Opp.Leaf

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium

0

0

1

1

1

0

Grape Hyacinth, Broad Leaf

Muscari latifolium

0

0

1

1

0

0

Gromwell, Purple

Lithospermum purpureocaerulium

0

0

0

0

0

1

Ground Ivy

Glechoma hederacea

0

0

1

1

1

1

Groundsel, Common

Senecio vulgaris

1

1

1

1

1

1

Hawksbeard, Beaked

Crepis vesicaria

0

0

0

0

1

0

Hawksbeard, Smooth

Crepis capillaris

0

0

0

0

1

0

Heath, Cross-leaved

Erica tetralix

0

0

0

0

0

1

Heath, Spring

Erica carnea

0

0

0

1

0

0

Hellebore, Stinking

Helleborus foetidus

0

0

0

1

0

0

Herb Robert

Geranium robertianum

1

1

1

1

1

1

Hogweed

Heracleum sphondylium

1

0

0

0

1

1

Honesty, Annual

Lunaria annua

0

0

0

1

1

1

Honeysuckle

Lonicera periclymenum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Hottentot Fig

Carpobrotus edulis

0

0

0

1

1

1

Iris, Stinking

Iris foetidissima

0

0

0

0

0

1

Iris, Yellow

Iris pseudacorus

0

0

0

0

0

1

Kale, Sea

Crambe maritima

0

0

0

0

1

1

Knapweed, Common

Centaurea nigra

0

0

0

0

0

1

Knotgrass, Common

Polygonum aviculare

0

0

0

0

0

1

Lady’s Mantle

Alchemilla sp.

0

0

0

0

0

1

Leopard’s Bane, Large leaf

Doronicum grandiflorum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Loosestrife, Dotted

Lysimachia punctata

0

0

0

0

0

1

Loosestrife, Purple

Lythrum salicaria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Lousewort, Common

Pedicularis sylvatica

0

0

0

1

0

0

Lungwort

Pulmonaria officinalis

0

0

1

1

0

0

Madder, Wild

Rubia peregrina

0

0

0

0

0

1

Mallow, Musk

Malva moschata

0

0

0

0

0

1

Mallow, Tree

Malva arborea

0

0

0

1

1

1

Marigold, Marsh

Caltha palustris

0

0

1

1

0

0

Marigold, Pot

Calendula officinalis

1

1

1

1

1

1

Mayweed, Scentless

Tripleurospermum inodorum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Meadow Grass, Annual

Poa annua

0

0

1

1

1

1

Meadowgrass, Smooth

Poa pratensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Meadowsweet

Filipendula ulmaria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Medick, Black

Medicago lupulina

0

0

0

0

1

1

Medick, Spotted

Medicago arabica

0

0

0

1

1

1

Mind Your Own Business

Soleirolia soleirolii

0

0

0

1

0

0

Monkey Flower

Mimulus ringens

0

0

0

0

0

1

Moor Grass, Purple

Molinia caerulia

0

0

0

0

0

1

Moschatel

Adoxa moschatellina

0

0

0

1

0

0

Mouse-ear, Common

Cerastium fontanum

0

0

0

1

1

1

Mouse-Ear, Sticky

Cerastium glomeratum

0

0

0

1

1

0

Mustard, Black

Brassica nigra

0

0

0

0

1

1

Mustard, Hedge

Sisymbrium officinale

0

0

0

1

1

1

Mustard, White

Sinapis alba

0

0

0

0

1

1

Nettle, Common

Urtica dioica

0

0

0

1

1

1

Nightshade, Alpine Enchanter’s

Circaea alpina

0

0

0

0

0

1

Nipplewort

Lapsana communis

1

0

1

1

1

1

Orache, Common

Atriplex patula

0

0

0

0

0

1

Orchid, Bee

Ophrys apifera

0

0

0

0

0

1

Orchid, Common Spotted

Dactylorhiza fuchsii

0

0

0

0

1

1

Orchid, Common Twayblade

Neottia ovata

0

0

0

0

1

1

Orchid, Early Purple

Orchis mascula

0

0

0

1

1

0

Orchid, Southern Marsh

Dactylorhiza praetermissa

0

0

0

0

1

1

Oxlip

Primula elatior

0

0

1

1

0

0

Oxtongue, Bristly

Helminthotheca echioides

1

0

0

0

1

1

Parsley, Cow

Anthriscus sylvestris

1

0

1

1

1

1

Parsley, Upright Hedge

Torilis japonica

1

0

0

0

0

0

Parsnip, Wild

Pastinaca sativa

0

0

0

0

0

1

Pearlwort, Procumbent

Sagina procumbens

0

0

0

0

1

1

Pellitory of the Wall

Parietaria judaica

0

0

0

0

1

1

Pennywort, Wall

Umbilicus rupestris

0

0

0

0

1

1

Periwinkle, Greater

Vinca major

1

0

1

1

1

1

Periwinkle, Lesser

Vinca minor

1

1

1

1

1

1

Pignut

Conopodium majus

0

0

0

0

1

0

Pimpernel, Scarlet

Lysimachia arvensis

0

0

0

0

1

1

Pimpernel, Yellow

Lysimachia nemorum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Pineapple Weed

Matricaria discoides

0

0

0

0

0

1

Plantain, Buck’s-horn

Plantago coronopus

0

0

0

1

1

1

Plantain, Ribwort

Plantago lanceolata

0

0

1

1

1

1

Pondweed, Cape

Aponogeton distachyos

0

0

1

1

0

0

Poppy, Common

Papaver rhoeas

0

0

0

0

0

1

Poppy, Yellow Horned

Glaucium flavum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Primrose

Primula vulgaris

1

1

1

1

1

0

Purslane, Pink

Claytonia sibirica

0

0

1

1

0

1

Ragged Robin

Silene flos-cuculi

0

0

0

0

0

1

Ragwort, Common

Jacobaea vulgaris

1

1

0

0

0

1

Ragwort, Silver

Jaconaea maritima

0

0

0

0

0

1

Redshank

Persicaria maculosa

0

0

0

0

0

1

Restharrow, Common

Ononis repens

0

0

0

0

0

1

Rose

Rosa sp.

 

0

0

0

0

1

Rush, Soft

Juncus effusus

0

0

0

0

1

1

Sage, Wood

Teucrium scorodonia

0

0

0

0

0

1

Samphire, Rock

Crithmum maritimum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Sanicle

Sanicula europaea

0

0

0

0

1

1

Scurvygrass, Danish

Cochlearia danica

0

0

1

1

1

1

Sea Beet

Beta vulgaris ssp. Maritima

0

0

0

1

1

1

Sea-spurrey, Rock

Spurgularia rupicola

0

0

0

0

0

1

Sedge, Pendulous

Carex pendula

0

0

0

1

1

1

Sedge, Remote

Carex remota

0

0

0

0

1

0

Sedge, Wood

Carex sylvatica

0

0

0

0

1

0

Selfheal

Prunella vulgaris

0

0

0

0

1

1

Shepherd’s Purse

Capsella bursa-pastoris

0

0

1

1

1

1

Skunk Cabbage, American

Lysichiton americanus

0

0

1

1

0

0

Snowdrop

Galanthus nivalis

1

1

1

0

0

0

Snowdrop, Greater

Galanthus elwessii

1

0

0

0

0

0

Snowflake, Summer

Leucojum aestivum

1

0

1

0

0

0

Solomon’s Seal

Polygonatum sp.

0

0

0

0

1

0

Sorrel, Common

Rumex acetosa

0

0

0

1

1

1

Sorrel, Pale Pink

Oxalis incarnata

0

0

0

1

0

0

Sorrel, Procumbent Yellow

Oxalis corniculata

0

0

0

1

1

1

Sorrel, Sheep’s

Rumex acetosella

0

0

0

0

1

0

Sorrel, Wood

Oxalis acetosella

0

0

0

1

0

0

Sow Thistle, Smooth

Sonchus oleraceus

1

1

1

1

1

1

Sowthistle, Perennial

Sonchus arvensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Sowthistle, Prickly

Sonchus asper

0

0

0

0

1

1

Spearwort, Greater

Ranunculus lingua

0

0

0

0

0

1

Speedwell, Common Field

Veronica persica

1

1

1

1

1

1

Speedwell, Germander

Veronica chamaedris

0

1

1

1

1

1

Speedwell, Ivy-Leaved

Veronica hederifolia

0

0

1

1

1

0

Speedwell, Pink Ivy-leaved

Veronica sublobata

0

0

0

1

1

0

Speedwell, Slender

Veronica filiformis

0

0

1

1

1

0

Speedwell, Thyme-leaved

Veronica serpyllifolia

0

0

0

1

1

0

Speedwell, Wall

Veronica arvensis

0

0

0

0

1

1

Speedwell, Wood

Veronica montana

0

0

0

0

1

1

Spurge, Petty

Euphorbia peplus

1

1

1

1

1

1

Spurge, Upright

Euphorbia stricta

0

0

0

0

0

1

Spurge, Wood

Euphorbia amygdaloides

0

0

0

1

1

0

Squill, Siberian

Scilla siberica

0

0

1

0

0

0

St John’s Wort, Perforate

Hypericum perforatum

0

0

0

0

0

1

St John’s Wort, Shrubby

Hypericum androsaemum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Star of Bethlehem

Ornithogalum umbellatum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Stitchwort, Bog

Stellaria alsine

0

0

0

0

1

0

Stitchwort, Greater

Stellaria holostea

0

0

1

1

1

0

Stitchwort, Lesser

Stellaria graminea

0

0

0

0

1

1

Stitchwort, Marsh

Stellaria palustris

0

0

0

0

1

0

Stonecrop, Biting

Sedum acre

0

0

0

0

0

1

Stonecrop, White

Sedum album

0

0

0

0

0

1

Strawberry, Barren

Fragaria sterilis

1

1

1

1

0

0

Strawberry, Wild

Fragaria vesca

0

0

0

1

1

1

Sweet Cicely

Myrrhis odorata

0

0

0

0

1

0

Swinecress, Lesser

Lepidium didymum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Tare, Hairy

Vicia hirsuta

0

0

0

0

1

1

Tare, Smooth

Vicia tetrasperma

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thale Cress

Arabidopsis thaliana

0

1

1

1

0

0

Thistle, Creeping

Cirsium arvense

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thistle, Marsh

Cirsium palustre

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thistle, Melancholy

Cirsium heterophyllum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thistle, Spear

Cirsium vulgare

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thrift, Estoril

Armeria pseudarmeria

1

0

0

0

0

0

Thrift, Sea

Armeria maritima

0

0

1

1

1

1

Toadflax, Ivy-Leaved

Cymbalaria muralis

1

1

1

1

1

1

Toadflax, Purple

Linaria purpurea

0

0

0

0

0

1

Toothwort, Purple

Lathraea clandestina

0

0

1

1

0

0

Tormentil

Potentilla erecta

0

0

0

0

1

1

Trefoil, Bird’s-foot

Lotus corniculatus

0

0

0

1

1

1

Trefoil, Lesser

Trifolium dubium

0

0

0

0

1

1

Valerian, Red

Centranthus rubra

0

0

0

1

1

1

Vernal Grass, Sweet

Anthoxanthum odoratum

0

0

0

0

1

0

Vetch, Bush

Vicia sepum

1

1

1

1

0

1

Vetch, Common

Vicia sativa

0

0

0

1

1

1

Vetch, Common Kidney

Anthyllis vulneraria

0

0

0

0

0

1

Vetch, Tufted

Vicia cracca

1

0

1

0

0

1

Vetchling, Grass

Lathyrus nissolia

0

0

0

0

0

1

Vetchling, Meadow

Lathyrus pratensis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Violet, Common Dog

Viola riviniana

0

0

1

1

1

0

Violet, Early Dog

Viola reichenbachiana

0

0

1

1

1

0

Violet, Sweet

Viola odorata

1

1

1

0

0

0

Wall-rocket, Annual

Diplotaxis muralis

0

0

0

0

0

1

Watercress

Nasturtium officinale

0

0

0

0

0

1

Water-dropwort, Corky-fruited

Oenanthe pimpinelloides

0

0

0

0

0

1

Water-Dropwort, Hemlock

Oenanthe crocata

0

0

1

1

1

1

Willowherb, Broad-leaved

Epilobium montanum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Willowherb, Greater

Epilobium hirsutum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Willowherb, Hoary

Epilobium parviflorum

0

0

0

0

0

1

Winter Aconite

Eranthis hyemalis

1

1

0

0

0

0

Winter Heliotrope

Petasites fragrans

1

1

1

0

0

0

Wintercress, Common

Barbarea vulgaris

0

0

0

0

0

1

Woodruff, Sweet

Galium odoratum

0

0

0

0

1

1

Woodrush, Field

Luzula campestris

0

0

1

1

1

0

Woodrush, Great

Luzula sylvestris

0

0

1

1

0

0

Woundwort, Hedge

Stachys sylvatica

0

0

0

0

0

1

Woundwort, Marsh

Stachys palustris

0

0

0

0

0

1

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

1

0

0

0

1

1

Yellow Archangel

Lamium galeobdolon

0

0

1

1

1

0

Yellow Rattle

Rhinanthus minor

0

0

0

0

0

1

 

 

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